Diabetes Sugar Level Chart

chart.news3All diabetics know that maintaining proper blood sugar levels is the lifeline of their disease. Without maintaining this stability, the disease is left to run rampant through the body causing destruction. A diabetes sugar level chart serves as a reference to help keep things in balance.

The chart gives indicators throughout the stages of diabetes, from pre-diabetes to established diagnoses. It serves as a reference for keeping glucose levels in check so that the likelihood of flareups is minimized.

Under normal circumstances, the proper blood sugar level is between 70 and 150 mg/dL. The range takes into effect the difference in individual body composition, the various levels at which glucose is produced, the rate at which sugar is burned, etc. All of these factors make a person’s readingsas individual as they are. Your doctor can determine what range is appropriate for you.

Glucose readings will also fluctuate throughout the day so it is important to maintain readings in intervals. Readings will typically be the lowest in the morning, caused by forced fasting while you sleep. After meals, the levels will begin to rise for several hours as the food is digested. The rate at which it rises, and the level that it reaches, are directly proportionate to the amount of carbs that are ingested.

Checking Blood Sugar Levels

images (1)People with diabetes must maintain a balanced blood sugar level. This can be difficult to do in certain situations, such as traveling. The first step to making sure that your blood sugar levels stay balanced is to talk to your healthcare provider regarding when and how often to check your blood sugar. Most people check anywhere from one to four times each day.

Check at different times of the day

Most health care practitioners will tell you to vary the time that you’re checking your blood sugar so that you have a better idea of what’s going on throughout the day.

When you wake

The first time you check your blood sugar should be in the morning before you eat anything. This is called fasting blood sugar. Make sure that you haven’t had any food for at least eight hours. This will let you know how well your blood sugar is being controlled during the night while you’re asleep.

Before and after meals

You should also check blood sugar levels before and after a meal so that you can see how your body responds to certain foods. Some people will check at 2 AM or 3 AM in the morning to make sure that their insulin dose is adequate.

Before and after exercise

It’s very important to check blood sugar levels before and after exercise because a person’s body can react strongly to physical movement. For instance, people with high blood sugar will often notice a great reduction in their glucose levels following exercise.

Before driving

If your diabetes is not under good control, always check your blood sugar level before you drive a car. This is especially true if you take any medications that can cause low blood sugar. If you feel any symptoms of low blood sugar, you should always check your glucose level.

During illness

Finally, during illness it is very important to check your blood sugar level more often as being sick can cause your glucose levels to rise. Make sure that you always write down your blood sugar results so that you can keep a good track record for your healthcare provider.

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Healthy Meals for People With Type 2 Diabetes

The right diet can transform a case of type 2 diabetes while the wrong foods can lead to dangerous complications. Learn tips and tricks for eating with diabetes.

Food is an important part of our culture. We don’t eat just to sustain ourselves — we celebrate with food, and we often mourn with it too. So it’s not surprising that if you’ve just been told that you have type 2 diabetes, one of your first thoughts will probably be, “but what will I eat?”

Luckily, it’s not so difficult to eat well and enjoy food even if you have diabetes. The first thing is to learn the basics, says Kathy Honick, RN, CDE, a diabetes educator at Barnes Jewish Hospital in St. Louis. She recommends that all people newly diagnosed with diabetes “meet with a registered dietitian to learn about what they can and can’t eat.”

Type 2 Diabetes: Diets

There’s no one-size-fits-all type of diabetic diet. Some people respond well to carbohydrate counting (keeping track of the amount of carbohydrates you ingest with each food product), others to portion control (adjusting portion size to produce desired blood sugar levels), and yet others to the diabetes food pyramid (eating a set number of portions of specific foods throughout the day).

Type 2 Diabetes: Food Choices

Honick says “meal planning for someone with type 2 diabetes is about healthy eating with a balance of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.”

So, what should you choose?

  • Fruits and vegetables are usually good choices, but be careful not to eat too much fruit. Check with your dietitian to see how much is recommended.
  • Non-starchy vegetables are a good choice. These include spinach, carrots, broccoli, and green beans.
  • Eat whole-grain foods, such as brown rice and whole wheat pasta.
  • Include legumes like lentils, kidney, or pinto beans in your meal plans.
  • Choose fish over meat two to three times a week.
  • For meat, choose lean pork or beef, or chicken or turkey with the skin removed.
  • Dairy (cheese, yogurt, milk) is important, but go for non-fat versions, even for ice cream.

Type 2 Diabetes: Foods to Avoid

  • Sodas are chock-full of sugar, as are fruit punches and other sugar-sweetened drinks. So opt for diet drinks or water.
  • Sugary snacks (cookies, cakes, chips, ice cream) fill you up with empty calories. Choose healthier snack options instead.

Type 2 Diabetes: Cooking

When trying to follow a healthy diet, how you cook your food makes a big difference in the end product.

Honick suggests:

  • Baking or broiling instead of frying.
  • Using extra-virgin olive oil instead of vegetable oil.
  • Limiting trans fats (found in many processed foods and foods cooked in oil) and saturated fats (found in meats and whole milk) to less than 20 grams per day, if possible.
  • Limiting sodium (salt) to 2,000 to 2,400 grams per day, unless you’re on a sodium-restricted diet. In that case, you should follow your doctor’s recommendations.
  • Choosing fresh or frozen foods over canned.

In addition, she says that “unless you have a fluid restriction, take in six to eight glasses of unsweetened clear liquids per day. It’s recommended to drink a glass of water before and a glass of water after each meal.”

Eating well is one of the pleasures of life. If you have type 2 diabetes, you don’t have to forgo the enjoyment of food. You just have to adapt and change your eating habits and, maybe, some of the foods you eat.

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Cinnamon Helps Us To Prevent Diabetes

cinnamonA growing body of research suggests that the common spice cinnamon can help prevent and regulate diabetes.

Cinnamon is derived from the inner bark of Cinnamomum trees, and has a long history as a culinary and medicinal plant. Its uses in traditional medicine include the treatment of colds, congestion and diarrhea, and modern science has found that it is high in antioxidants that may help reduce the risk of chronic diseases and slow the progress of aging. More specifically, the spice appears promising in the fight against diabetes.

“Not only does cinnamon activate essential enzymes in the body thus stimulating the receptors in the cells so they will respond more efficiently to insulin, but it also inhibits the enzymes responsible for deactivating … causing insulin resistance,” writes David W Tanton in the book “Antidepressants, Antipsychotics, And Stimulants — Dangerous Drugs on Trial.”

“Cinnamon bark actually contains calcium, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and vitamins A, Bi, B2, and C, many of which are important for the prevention or treatment of diabetes.”

One review of eight studies conducted on humans concluded that cinnamon is effective at reducing blood glucose levels both between and after meals, and that supplementation may help reduce complications from diabetes.

One study, for example, found that cinnamon supplements led to lower fasting blood glucose and increased antioxidant activity. Another found that supplementation improved fasting glucose and insulin response, but that these improvements vanished when supplementation ended. In another study, cinnamon supplementation reduced not just fasting blood glucose levels, but also overall body fat percentage. It also led to an increase in lean muscle mass.

Cinnamon has even outperformed pharmaceuticals. In a study published in the “Journal of Diabetic Medicine,” participants given cinnamon supplements experienced greater improvement in blood sugar levels than participants given standard diabetes drugs.

Even for those interested in pursuing cinnamon supplementation, the best way to prevent and manage Type 2 diabetes is still to maintain a healthy body weight, eat a healthy diet low in refined sugar and high in natural fiber, and exercise regularly.

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Tips on Foot and Skin Care

When you have peripheral neuropathy caused by diabetes, your feet and skin need extra care and attention.

Very small, repetitive injuries to the feet – like those caused by poorly fitting shoes – can lead to bigger problems, says Tom Elasy, MD, director of the Diabetes Clinic at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tenn. “Calluses, blisters, sores, infections, and foot ulcers may appear on numb areas of the foot because pressure or injury goes unnoticed. This happens simply because you can’t feel the problem.”

Also, people with uncontrolled diabetes have a hard time fighting infections. They may also have poor circulation that can lead to problems with healing. That means a minor cut in your skin could become an ulcer or develop into a serious infection. With good foot care, you can prevent most of these problems.

Inspect Your Feet Daily if You Have Diabetes
“We recommend that patients inspect their feet on a daily basis for cuts, any signs of redness, calluses, or blisters,” says Elasy. “Using a little mirror can help. Also, it’s important to moisturize. But avoid getting it between the toes, because that area is already moist. So extra moisture tends to cause fungal infections.”

Even if you have diabetes, caring for your feet is easy. It’s best to do it when you are bathing or getting ready for bed. And remember that good foot care also involves getting medical help early if a problem develops. It’s very important to see your doctor for treatment right away – to prevent serious complications like infections.

Here are good everyday foot care habits to follow:

  • Inspect your feet daily. Wash your feet, and then thoroughly dry them. Use a handheld mirror (like a magnifying mirror) to inspect them. Look for blisters, cuts, cracks, dry skin, redness, tenderness, or sores on the skin and on the soles of your feet.
  • Powder in between your toes. This helps keep that moist skin dry and helps prevent fungal infections.
  • Rub lotion on your feet and legs to prevent dry cracked skin. But don’t put lotion between your toes because of the risk of fungal infections.
  • Keep your nails trimmed. Use an emery board for filing so you don’t hurt your skin.
  • Protect your feet. Always wear shoes or slippers to protect your feet from injury. Don’t use a heating pad or hot water bottle to warm your feet.
  • Get checkups at the doctor. On each visit, make sure your doctor inspects your feet.
  • Don’t use corn removers or other drugstore foot treatments. These can be harmful. Let your doctor treat your foot problems.
  • Wear properly fitted shoes. Also, wear socks at all times to prevent injury.

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How is Diabetes Managed?

downloadDiabetes is managed by keeping blood sugar under control and as close to normal as possible. For most people with diabetes, a healthy range is between 90 and 130 mg/dl before meals and less than 180 mg/dl at one to two hours after a meal. This is the key to avoiding complications and discomfort. Here are some ways to manage diabetes:

Exercise. Work up to at least 30 minutes a day, most days of the week. Regular physical activity helps to manage diabetes. People with diabetes should talk to their doctor or health care provider before starting any exercise plan. Some good ways to get exercise are to:

  • Take a brisk walk (outside or inside on a treadmill).
  • Go dancing.
  • Take a low-impact aerobics class.
  • Swim or do water aerobic exercises.
  • Ice-skate or roller-skate.
  • Play tennis.
  • Ride a stationary bicycle indoors.

Here are some ideas for being more active everyday:

  • Park the car farther away from your destination.
  • Get on or off the bus several blocks away from your stop.
  • Take the stairs instead of the elevator or escalator.
  • Exercise while watching TV.
  • Walk around while you talk on the phone.
  • Play with the kids.
  • Take the dog for a walk.
  • Take the stairs instead of the elevator or escalator.
  • Get up to change the TV channel instead of using the remote control.
  • Work in the garden or rake leaves.
  • Clean the house.
  • Wash the car.
  • Stretch out your chores. For example, make two trips to take the laundry downstairs instead of one.
  • Park at the far end of the grocery store lot and walk to the store.
  • At work, walk over to see a co-worker instead of calling or emailing.
  • Stretch or walk around instead of taking a coffee break and eating.
  • During your lunch break, walk to the post office or do other errands.

Choose Healthy Food.

images (1)Good nutrition is a very important part of diabetes management. People with diabetes should work with their diabetes healthcare team to develop an eating plan that meets their personal food preferences while keeping blood glucose in a healthy range. By choosing nutritious foods and balancing what and how much you eat with activity level, blood sugar levels can be kept as close to normal as possible. Here are a few tips on making healthy food choices for the entire family.

  • Eat lots of vegetables and fruits. Try picking from the rainbow of colors available to add variety to your meals. Choose more non-starchy vegetables that have lots of vitamins and minerals such as spinach, carrots, broccoli or green beans with meals.
  • Choose whole grain foods instead of processed grain products like white bread, white rice or regular pasta. Try brown rice with your stir-fry or whole wheat spaghetti with your favorite pasta sauce.
  • Include fish in your meals two to three times a week and choose lean meats like chicken and turkey without the skin. To prepare meats and fish with less fat, trim any visible fat and use low-fat cooking methods such as broiling, grilling, roasting, poaching or stir-frying.
  • Include dried beans (like kidney or pinto beans) and lentils in your meals.
  • Choose low fat dairy products such as milk, yogurt and cheese (1 percent fat or less).
  • Choose liquid oils such as canola, olive or peanut oil for cooking, instead of solid fats such as butter, lard and shortening. Remember that all fats are high in calories. If you’re trying to lose weight, cut back on portion sizes of added fats.
  • Choose fruit that is in-season for dessert – you’ll get more flavor and pay less too! Try to cut back on high-calorie dessert and snack foods such as chips, cookies, cakes and ice cream that give you and your family little nutrition.
  • Choose water and calorie-free “diet” drinks instead of regular soda, fruit punch, sweet tea and other sugar-sweetened drinks.
  • Control your portion sizes. Remember that the amount of food you eat is important in getting to and staying at a healthy weight. Even eating too much healthy food can lead to weight gain.

Take Your Medicine. It is important for people with diabetes to know what medicines they are taking, why they are taking them and how to take them. People with diabetes should tell their doctor or health care provider if they are taking any herbs or other supplements.

Check Blood Sugar. A doctor or health care provider can explain how to test blood sugar and how often it should be checked.

Quit Smoking. The NYS Smoker’s Quitline (1-866-697-8487) provides help to people who want to stop smoking.

A1C Blood Test. This blood test measures the average blood sugar over the last three months. It should be done two to four times a year. An A1C measure of less than 7 percent is the goal.

Blood Pressure. This should be checked at each visit to a doctor or health care provider. A blood pressure reading of less than 130/80 mmHg is the goal.

Cholesterol. A lipid profile blood test should be checked once a year. This includes total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and HDL. The total cholesterol should be less than 200 mg/dL, the LDL (known as the bad cholesterol) should be less than 100 mg/dL and the HDL (known as the good cholesterol) should be greater than 40 mg/dL for men and greater than 50 mg/dL for women.

Eye Exam. A dilated eye exam should be done every year by an optometrist or ophthalmologist (an eye doctor who specializes in eye diseases). During a dilated eye exam, eye drops are used to make the pupil (the black part of the eye) bigger. This allows the eye doctor to see the back of the eye. Finding eye problems early and getting treatment right away will help prevent more serious problems later on.

Foot Exam. It is important that people with diabetes take off their shoes and socks at every doctor’s visit and learn how to check their feet daily for cuts, breaks in the skin, or ingrown toenails. The doctor also needs to know if there are any changes in the color or shape of the feet, or if there is any pain or lack of sensation.

Kidney Test. People with diabetes need to have a blood or urine test ordered by their doctor every year to check how well their kidneys are working.

Flu Shot. A flu shot should be given once every year. A doctor or health care provider may also order a pneumonia shot.

Dental Exam. It is important that people with diabetes have their teeth and gums checked every six months.

Coping Skills. People with diabetes may need to talk to their health care team about any feelings, problems or questions they may have. People with diabetes are at higher risk for depression.

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Herbs For Diabetes

Diabetes is one of those prolonged illnesses that could be effectively cured with the help of herbs. Although there are different herbs available, you need to prefer those that are known to have lasting effects. Remember that receding blood sugar levels play a defining role in curing diabetes from the core. It all depends upon your body’s response regarding those herbs you take. Modern health standards have improved to such an extent that a variety of herbal supplements are now available vividly to let you take care of your body with the perfect maintenance and production of insulin levels. Here are the most preferred herbs and their benefits for you in a nutshell.

Gymnema Sylvestre is highly preferred herb because of its immense success in reducing the blood sugar levels in body. One of the unique benefits available with the use of this sapling is that it helps in detecting sweetness of those products you consume so that you could avoid their intake. An additional feature that could be obtained from this medicinal herb is that it helps in propelling the role of enzymes, which are instrumental in aiding cells to rely upon glucose with the increased production of insulin. There have been no side effects identified so far in those using this herb.

Momordica charantia is one of the commonly available herbal medicines that is known to offer successful cure by reducing the blood sugar levels. People with diabetes are usually advised with a dosage of around 300 milligrams everyday to check the intensity of blood sugar in body. This herb is commonly known as bitter melon and supports cells in making maximum use of glucose produced in body. Though it is effective in countering diabetes perfectly, the possibility of side effects in some people has to be assessed to remain safer.

Avena satvia is considered to be another useful herb that checks the progress of diabetic conditions in humans in a highly reliable manner. Popularly known as oatstraw, it is the herbal supplement that is regarded as a rich source of magnesium. The biggest advantage of using this herb is that of regulating insulin function by improving the flow of blood. It has been identified that the loss of magnesium in body results in the development of diabetic conditions that will turn into a major illness eventually. In contrast, people with serious diabetic issues were able to regain normalcy with the consistent of this herb.

Prickly pear cactus is available as one of the common herbs meant to control the spread of diabetes in humans. This herb has got a direct action upon people of all age groups especially elders. Ideally, it is recommended to take half cup of this herb on a daily basis for positive results. You will be able to have a huge sigh of reprieve after knowing that it is available in its original form in grocery stores as well. However, it is offered for sale in the form of juice extracted from the fruit or even in the powdered form.

Gamma Linolenic acid is an essential omega-6 acid that is extracted from herbal plants to alleviate the issues related to diabetes. Alternatively called as GLA, it is found to be an effective cure in the case of even those who are found to suffer from acute diabetic conditions. Being a polyunsaturated fatty acid, this herbal extract is chosen for treating diabetes. More specifically, it is a herbal drug that has been explored the most in the case of those who experience severe nerve pain. The recommended dosage is listed on top or could be obtained from a registered medical practitioner.

Vaccinium myrtillus is a herbal supplement that is as effective as any other herb known to cure diabetes successfully. It is known as bilberry among most of the users that belongs to the family of blueberries. Maximum optical care could be obtained with the regular consumption of this extract. Effective antioxidants have been found in the leaves of this fruit, which could be extracted in order to treat those suffering from diabetes since a long time. Regulating the way how nerves function in the body on an overall is one of the chief reasons that why medical experts suggest for its intake.

Fenugreek leaves and seeds are known to have high medicinal importance. However, a majority of the people are not yet aware that it is one of the best herbal products available in treating diabetes. Reducing and controlling the blood sugar levels are some of the standard functions performed by these seeds. Enhancing the sensitivity levels of insulin is another great feature that could be realized with the constant intake of the Fenugreek extract. People who have a history of high cholesterol levels will benefit to an optimum extent because of this herb. The general suggested intake is 25 grams per day on an average that will be enough in nurturing diabetics back to health.

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Does Taking Fiber Help Regulate Blood Sugar?

There are two types of fiber: soluble and insoluble. Though the body does not digest fiber like it does protein or fat, you should become familiar with the different types of fiber that you’re eating, because they have different benefits for your body.

Soluble and Insoluble Fiber

  • Soluble fiber tends to dissolve in water in your digestive tract. The viscous and gel-like substance that soluble fiber forms with water helps to slow down the passage of food in your digestive tract. This also slows down the absorption of nutrients in your intestine, which helps to regulate blood sugar and insulin levels. In contrast, insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and has little impact on blood sugar levels. Instead, it mostly helps to regulate your stool.

Blood Sugar Effects

  • Sudden increases in the amount of glucose in your bloodstream triggers a similar boost in your levels of insulin, a hormone that triggers your cells to use this glucose. Foods that contain a lot of carbohydrates tend to induce spikes in both your blood sugar and insulin levels as your body breaks carbohydrates down to glucose. By slowing down the digestion of carbohydrates, fiber promotes the gradual increase of blood sugar and insulin over a longer period of time. This effect arises mainly from a food’s soluble fiber content.


  • Large, sudden changes in blood sugar and insulin levels can increase your risk of both cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. Soluble fiber can help to reduce your risk of both of these conditions. Soluble fiber is particularly beneficial for people at high risk of developing type-2 diabetes, such as those with impaired glucose tolerance. Because of its effects on blood glucose and insulin levels, soluble fiber can also help people with diabetes to regulate their blood sugar levels. Interestingly, this is true of people with both type-1 and type-2 diabetes.

Increasing Your Intake

  • Your recommended fiber intake varies depending on your age and gender. Men 50 and under should aim for 38 grams per day, while 30 grams is ideal for men over age 50. Women need slightly less — 25 grams for those under age 50 and 21 grams for those over 50. However, if you have diabetes, you should try to consume as much as 50 grams of fiber per day. Oats, legumes, apples, citrus fruits and carrots are all great foods for helping you to boost your soluble fiber intake and reap its blood sugar benefits. You should also try to increase your total fiber intake by eating whole wheat products, nuts, cauliflower and potatoes, all of which are great sources of insoluble fiber.

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Managing Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes can sometimes initially be managed through lifestyle modification including a healthy diet and regular exercise. However, as the disease progresses, people with type 2 diabetes are often prescribed tablets to control their blood glucose levels. These tablets are intended to be used in conjunction with healthy eating and regular physical activity, not as a substitute. Diabetes tablets are not an oral form of insulin and they require insulin to be present in the body to be effective.

Eventually it may be necessary to start taking insulin to control blood glucose levels, when your body is no longer producing enough insulin of its own. Sometimes tablets may be continued in addition to insulin.

The aim of diabetes management is to keep blood glucose levels as close to ‘normal’ as possible, that is between 4 to 6 mmol/L (fasting), as this will help prevent both short-term and long-term complications.

Regular blood glucose monitoring is necessary to see if the treatment being followed is adequately controlling blood glucose levels.

No matter which medication or management plan your doctor prescribes, make sure you follow their instructions. The pattern and frequency will depend on the individual, the tables and your circumstances.

Tablets for Type 2 Diabetes

There are five classes of tablets currently used in Australia for lowering blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes. These tablets can be taken alone or with a tablet from another group.

Thiazolidinediones (glitazones)
Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitor


This group of insulin tablets helps to lower blood glucose levels by:
  • Reducing the amount of stored glucose released by the liver
  • Slowing the absorption of glucose from the intestine
  • Helping the body to become more sensitive to insulin so that your own insulin works better.


Chemical Name Some Brand Names
Metformin Diabex Diaformin
Diabex XR Formet
Glucohexal Glucomet
Glucophage Genrx metformin

When to take: with meals.

Possible side effects include: nausea, diarrhoea and a metallic taste in the mouth. These can be reduced by taking the tablets with or after a meal. Speak with your doctor if you experience any side effects to find the right solution for you.

Dosage: they should be started at a low dose. Over time, your doctor may need to gradually increase the dose. The dosage may differ for individuals so ONLY take the dosage prescribed by YOUR doctor.

Points to remember:

  • They generally don’t cause weight-gain, and may actually help to lose a few kilos. It is often prescribed as the first diabetes tablet for people with type 2 diabetes.
  • They should not be used by people with severe liver, kidney or heart disease. Metformin may need to be stopped before surgery or procedures that require injecting a radio-opaque dye such as a coronary angiogram. Always check with your doctor.
  • They may need to be combined with the sulphonylurea class of tablets.


This group of insulin tablets stimulates the pancreas to produce more insulin.

Chemical Name Some Brand Names
Gliclazide Diamicron Glyade
Diamicron MR Mellihexal
Nidem Genrx gliclazide
Glibenclamide Daonil Glimel
Glipizide Melizide Minidiab
Glimepiride Amaryl Dimirel

When to take: before with meals.

Possible side effects include: weight gain, skin rashes, gastric upsets, jaundice andhypoglycaemia. Speak with your doctor if you experience any side effects to find the right solution for you.

Dosage: over time, your doctor may need to gradually increase the dose. The dosage may differ for individuals so ONLY take the dosage prescribed by YOUR doctor.

Thiazolidinediones (glitazones)

This group of insulin tablets is also known as glitazones. They help to lower blood glucose levels by increasing the effect of your own insulin, especially on muscle and fat cells i.e. they improve insulin resistance.

Chemical Name Some Brand Names
Rosiglitazone Avandia
Pioglitazone Actos

When to take: they don’t need to be taken with a meal and can be taken once or twice daily at any convenient time.

Possible side effects include: a small weight gain. Fat is moved from areas where it is bad for your health (around the tummy) to other areas such as the top of the thighs, where you still may not want it but it is not as harmful to your health.
Speak with your doctor if you experience any side effects to find the right solution for you.

Dosage: once or twice daily. The dosage may differ for individuals so ONLY take the dosage prescribed by YOUR doctor.


This group of insulin tablets lower blood glucose levels by stimulating the pancreas to release more insulin, although they are not chemically related to the sulphonylureas.

Chemical Name Some Brand Names
Repaglinide Novonorm Prandin

When to take: before a meal

Possible side effects include: low blood glucose level (hypoglycaemia) and possibly gastro upsets and abnormalities of liver function tests. Speak with your doctor if you experience any side effects to find the right solution for you.

Dosage: one to three times daily. The dosage may differ for individuals so ONLY take the dosage prescribed by YOUR doctor.

Not to be taken by: women who are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Points to remember:

  • They are quick acting and don’t last long so a tablet is taken before each meal to stimulate insulin to cope with that meal. They offer flexibility for people with erratic eating patterns, e.g. shift workers.

Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitor

They help to slow down the digestion and absorption of certain dietary carbohydrates in the stomach (intestine). Taken on their own, they don’t cause hypoglycaemia.

Chemical Name Some Brand Names
Acarbose Glucobay Precose

When to take: just before eating.

Possible side effects include: weight loss, flatulence (wind), bloating and diarrhoea. Speak with your doctor if you experience any side effects to find the right solution for you.

Dosage: started at low doses and increased slowly to reduce side effects. The dosage may differ for individuals so ONLY take the dosage prescribed by YOUR doctor.

Not to be taken by: women who are pregnant or breast-feeding

Points to remember:

  • If hypoglycaemia [Link to Hypo page] occurs, due to another diabetes tablet you may be taking, it must be treated with pure glucose such as glucose tablets, gel or Lucozade.


At some stage your doctor may decide to add a second or even a third type of tablet to maintain your blood glucose levels. For example, metformin plus a sulphonylurea is a common combination.

As an alternative to taking two separate tablets there is currently one product that is a metformin and a sulphonylurea (glibenclamide) combined into a single tablet:

Chemical Name Some Brand Names
Metformin/glibenclamide Glucovance


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Switching To A Vegetarian Diet Gives You Benefits in Diabetes

diabetic-dietA vegetarian diet probably won’t cure your diabetes. But it may offer some benefits over a nonvegetarian diet — such as helping to better control your weight, reducing your risk of some diabetes-associated complications and possibly even making your body more responsive to insulin.

There’s no single vegetarian eating plan. For example, some allow dairy products while others don’t allow any animal products (vegans). The benefits of a vegetarian diet depend on the type of diet you choose and the food choices you make when following the diet. For most, however, eating a vegetarian diet:

  • Promotes a healthy weight. Vegetarian diets are often lower in calories than are nonvegetarian diets, which can help with weight management. Also, people following a vegan diet tend to have lower body mass indexes (BMIs) than do people who follow a nonvegetarian diet. A healthy body weight can improve blood sugar control and reduce your risk of diabetes complications.
  • Improves blood sugar control and insulin response. Eating vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes and nuts — features of a vegetarian diet — can improve blood sugar control and make your body more responsive to insulin. This may mean taking less medication and lowering your risk of diabetes-related complications. But even a vegetarian diet can have the opposite effect on blood sugar if it is rich in simple carbohydrates — especially starches, such as potatoes, white rice and white bread.
  • Reduces your risk of cardiovascular disease. A strict vegan diet is cholesterol-free, low in saturated fat and usually high in soluble fiber. A low-fat vegetarian diet can reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease — a common complication of people who have diabetes.

If you’re considering a vegetarian diet, it may be helpful to speak with a dietitian who can help you create an eating plan that provides all the necessary nutrients and the right number of calories to maintain a healthy weight. As with any diet, it’s important to stay within an appropriate calorie range to lose weight if that’s your goal.

ARTICLE SOURCE: This factual content has not been modified from the source. This content is syndicated news that can be used for your research, and we hope that it can help your productivity. This content is strictly for educational purposes and is not made for any kind of commercial purposes of this blog.

Prevention Is Necessary In Diabetes

Introduction to diabetes prevention

There are 2 major forms of diabetes – type 1 and type 2. This article focuses specifically on the prevention of type 2 diabetes. This form of diabetes is virtually a pandemic in the United States. This information reviews the risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes and covers key points regarding predicting who is at risk for type 2 diabetes (and what they can do about it).


What is type 2 diabetes?

The-future-of-diabetes-management.While diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar values, type 2 diabetes is also associated with a condition known as insulin resistance. While there is an element of impaired insulin secretion from the beta cells of the pancreas especially when toxic levels of glucose occur (when blood sugars are constantly very high), the major defect is the body’s inability to respond properly to insulin.

Eventually, even though the pancreas is working its best to produce more and more insulin, the body tissues (for example, muscle and fat cells) do not respond and become insensitive to the insulin. At this point, overt diabetes occurs as the body is no longer able to effectively use its insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels. Over time, these high levels of sugar result in the complications we see all too often in patients with diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes prevention

  • While genetics plays an important role, an individual still has the ability to influence their health to prevent diabetes.
  • Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are the biggest risk factors that are controllable. People should watch their weight, and exercisemore.
  • Diet is important because it helps with weight loss. There are some foods such as nuts, which in small amounts provide health benefits in blood sugar regulation.
  • There are tests available to see if a person is at an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, but to identify the two main factors simply requires a good family history (genetics) and a bathroom scale.
  • Exercise is beneficial even without weight loss in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.
  • Exercise is even more beneficialwith weight loss in the prevention of type 2 diabetes
  • Smoking is harmful in many ways including increasing the risk ofcancer and heart disease. It also increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • There are medications available that have been shown in large trials to delay or prevent the onset of overt diabetes. Use of these medications requires a detailed discussion of pros and cons with a doctor as there are side effects to consider.
  • The coming years will be very exciting regarding the advances in the field of prevention of diabetes. However, the cornerstone of therapy will likely remain a healthy lifestyle.


What are the risks factors for developing diabetes?

The risk factors for developing diabetes actually varies depending on where a person lives. This is in part due to the environment the person lives in, and in part due to the genetic makeup of the family. In the United States, it is estimated that one in three males and two out of every five females born in the year 2000 will develop diabetes (the lifetime risk). It has also been calculated that for those diagnosed with diabetes before the age of 40, the average life expectancy is reduced by 12 years for men, and 19 years for women.

The risk for developing diabetes increases in certain cases such as the following.

  • Genetics: People with a close relative with type 2 diabetes are at higher risk.
  • Ethnic background: For example, the actual prevalence of diabetes in the Caucasian population of the US is about 7.1% while in the African American population, it increases to about 12.6%. Approximately 8.4% of Asian Americans and 11.6% of Hispanic Americans are affected. In a well studied group of Native Americans, the Pima Indians, the prevalence increases to almost 35%.
  • Birth weight: There is a relationship between birth weight and developing diabetes, and it’s the opposite of what you’d intuitively think. The lower the birth weight the higher the risk of type 2 diabetes. At the other end of the spectrum, a very high birth weight (over 8.8 pounds or 4 kg) also is associated with an increased risk. Additionally, mothers of infants who had a higher birth weight (over 9 pounds) are at increased risk for developing diabetes.
  • Metabolic syndrome: People who have the metabolic syndrome are at especially high risk for developing diabetes.
  • Obesity: Obesity is probably the most impressive risk factor and in most situations the most controllable. This is in part due to the fact that obesity increases the body’s resistance to insulin. Studies have shown that reversal of obesity through weight reduction improves insulin sensitivity and regulation of blood sugar. However, the distribution of fat is important. The classic “pear” shape person (smaller waist than hips) has a lower risk of developing diabetes than the “apple” shape person (larger around the waist). The exact reason for this difference is unknown, but it is thought to have something to do with the metabolic activity of the fat tissue in different areas of the body.

ARTICLE SOURCE: This factual content has not been modified from the source. This content is syndicated news that can be used for your research, and we hope that it can help your productivity. This content is strictly for educational purposes and is not made for any kind of commercial purposes of this blog.